The plaintiff was a passenger on a steamer travelling from Liverpool to Philadelphia.
THE requirement OF reasonableness Under s11(1) the requirement of reasonableness is that "the term shall have been a fair and reasonable one to be included having regard to the circumstances which were, or ought reasonably to have been, known to or in the contemplation.
THE main provisions s2, Exemption of Liability for Negligence Under s2(1) no one acting in the course of a business can exclude or restrict his liability in negligence for death or personal injury by means of a term in a contract or by way.Incorporation, the person wishing to rely on the exclusion clause must show that it formed part of the contract.There are several English cases in which the courts have suggested that th effect of an exemption clause is to qualify or limit the scope of the contractual duties one party is to perform.See: Andrews v Hopkinson 1957 1 QB 229.British Gas, trading as Centrica, hired consultancy firm Accenture to design, supply, install and maintain a new billing system.Exclusion clauses that are subject to these provisions will either be void in all cases, or void where they fail a test of 'reasonableness'.
When the goods were handed back to Bradshaw's agent by Spurling, it was discovered that contents of three of the casks were damaged.
This might be a problem if one party is, for example, a big company, and the other is an ordinary customer.
But see: Peter Symmons Co v Cook NLJ 758 R B Customs Brokers v United Dominions Trust Ltd 1988 1 WLR 321.
Terms of the plaintiffs ticket referred to standard conditions which were available for inspection.
If there is any ambiguity, then the contra proferentem rule applies.Time limitation: The clause states that an action for a claim must be commenced within a certain period of time or the cause of action becomes extinguished.Mrs L'Estrange owned a cafe.Privity OF contract, as a result of the doctrine of privity of contract, the courts held that a person who is not a party to the contract (a third party) was not protected by an exclusion clause in that contract, even if the clause purported.Shoe Lane Parking mentoring minds reading answer key level 4 3 seems to indicate that the wider the clause, the more the party relying on it will have had to have done to bring it to the other parties' attention.He want to sue the car park due to the exclusion clause is not clearly worded.For more information about LD clauses, please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide.Under s11(4) where the exclusion clause seeks to limit liability rather than exclude it completely, the court must have regard to two factors: the resources available to meet the liability, and the extent to which insurance cover was available to the party aiming to limit.The notice must be given before formation of the contract as illustrated in Olley v Marlborough.An entire agreement clause cannot exclude fraud, such as fraudulent statements made during pre-contractual negotiations.